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Clinical Research : Incidence, risk factors and outcome of Acute kidney injury in tertiary teaching Hospitals in Rwanda

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Hospital / Affiliation: University of Rwanda / University Teaching Hospital of Butare

Home Country: Rwanda

Host Country: Rwanda

Year: 2014

Status of your program: COMPLETED


Title of the project:

Incidence, risk factors and outcome of Acute kidney injury
in tertiary teaching Hospitals in Rwanda


Acute Kidney Injury


Short description of the project or abstract:

Introduction:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major global health concern in both developed and developing countries. Although etiologies and risk factors of AKI in high and low income settings vary, a shared feature is the significant morbidity and mortality associated with AKI in both settings . There is limited data from East Africa including Rwanda on the epidemiology, risk factors and clinical implications of AKI among hospitalized patients.

Objectives: The overall objective of this study was to assess the features of AKI in Rwandan tertiary teaching hospitals .
Specific aims were: 

  • To determine the profile AKI patients
  • To determine the medical comorbidities associated with AKI
  • To determine causes and risks factors of AKI
  • To determine the mortality rate and the length hospital for AKI patients in Rwandan tertiary teaching hospitals.

Methods: This is a prospective observational study conducted at four referral teaching hospitals in Rwanda between September 1, 2014 and January 31, 2015. All admitted patients >age 15, with serum creatinine >= 1.4 mg were screened for evidence of AKI. During the study period, serum creatinine levels were reviewed on a daily basis at all study sites. Patients that met study criteria had demographic and clinical information collected and were followed until the end of hospital stay. Epidata 9 and Stata 11 softwares were used for data entry and analysis respectively. Demographic and clinical variables were expressed as frequencies. Statistical analyses were done using two sample T test or Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables depending on the underlying distributions of the variables and Pearson chi square test for categorical variables.

Results: Four hundred and twenty seven participants met study criteria for AKI. Fifty-six percent (56.2%) of individuals with AKI were within ages 15 to 50 years, while the elderly (>65 years of age) constituted 20.6% of study patients. The mean age of AKI patients was 47 years. Male to female ratio was 1:1.4. AKI had complicated Infectious diseases in 68.9% of patients. The most frequent non communicable comorbidity in AKI patient cohort was hypertension (24.8%). Pregnancy related AKI made up 12.4%. The average length of hospital stay was 15 days and all-cause mortality among patients with AKI was 31.9%.

Conclusion: AKI in tertiary teaching hospitals in Rwanda complicates mostly infectious diseases and AKI patients experience significantly prolonged length of hospital stay compared to patients without AKI. Further research is needed to understand the etiologies of AKI in Rwanda in order to guide strategies to prevent and/or reduce AKI-related morbidity and mortality.


Learning or Research objectives:

Briefly, the research objectives were to evaluate the burden of AKI and its outcome in referral teaching hospitals in Rwanda. Long term outcomes have been difficult to assess due to the high rate of loss to follow up patients after one year.


Additional Info

  • Year: 2014
  • Status: Completed
  • Partners: ISN only
  • Region: Africa
  • Country: Rwanda
  • Topics: AKI
Read 7466 times Last modified on Friday, 17 February 2017 12:27

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