renal pathologyTravels grants worth 1000 USD are available for the 3rd International Renal Pathology Conference, a joint meeting of the Renal Pathology Society and Indian Society of Renal and Transplantation Pathology with support from the ISN. The course will be held in New Delhi, India, from February 10 to 12, 2017. The deadline to apply is October 16, 2016.

Monday, 05 September 2016 23:39

Webinar: Hypo/hypernatrémie

Ce webinar de l'ISN est consacré à l'hypo/hypernatrémie.
En ce qui concerne l'hyponatremie, ce webinar aura comme objectif de
1) Reconnaitre l'hyponatrémie hypotonique
2) Reconnaitre les signes de sévérité
3) Connaitre la démarche diagnostique
4) Savoir traiter l'hyponatrémie symptomatique et 
5) Savoir traiter l'hyponatrémie à long terme. 

Quant à l'hypernatrémie, les objectifs du webinar seront de
1) Connaitre les mécanismes d'installation et les moyens de défense de l'organisme contre le déficit en eau
2) Connaitre les causes des hypernatrémies aiguës
3) Savoir explorer une hypernatrémie chronique
4) Connaitre les complications neurologiques de ce trouble et
5) Traiter les hypernatrémies.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a potent risk factor for coronary artery disease and premature death. However, the optimal strategies for revascularization versus medical management remain unclear. Charytan et al. address this knowledge gap with a well-structured individual patient meta-analysis. We discuss the implications of their findings for patients with moderate CKD and highlight the need for randomized, controlled trials on this issue in more severe CKD.

Coronary atherosclerotic disease is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although revascularization improves outcomes, procedural risks are increased in CKD, and unbiased data comparing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous intervention (PCI) in CKD are sparse. To compare outcomes of CABG and PCI in stage 3 to 5 CKD, we identified randomized trials comparing these procedures. Investigators were contacted to obtain individual, patient-level data. Ten of 27 trials meeting inclusion criteria provided data. These trials enrolled 3993 patients encompassing 526 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD of whom 137 were stage 3b–5 CKD. Among individuals with stage 3 to 5 CKD, survival through 5 years was not different after CABG compared with PCI (hazard ratio [HR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67–1.46) or stage 3b–5 CKD (HR 1.29, CI 0.68–2.46). However, CKD modified the impact on survival free of myocardial infarction: it was not different between CABG and PCI for individuals with preserved kidney function (HR 0.97, CI 0.80–1.17), but was significantly lower after CABG in stage 3–5 CKD (HR 0.49, CI 0.29–0.82) and stage 3b-5 CKD (HR 0.23, CI 0.09–0.58). Repeat revascularization was reduced after CABG compared with PCI regardless, of baseline kidney function. Results were limited by unavailability of data from several trials and paucity of enrolled patients with stage 4–5 CKD. Thus, our patient-level meta-analysis of individuals with CKD randomized to CABG versus PCI suggests that CABG significantly reduces the risk of subsequent myocardial infarction and revascularization without affecting survival in these patients.

Recent studies have focused on associations of the APOL1 risk variants with outcomes beyond kidney disease, including cardiovascular disease and mortality. Ma and colleagues now expand on this growing but contradicting body of work. Their analysis of a prevalent cohort of African American hemodialysis patients shows that the risk variants are associated with a survival benefit among nondiabetics. Whether this simply reflects a healthier status at hemodialysis initiation among those carrying 2 risk variants or whether these variants truly confer a survival advantage is unclear.

Relative to European Americans, evidence supports that African Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) survive longer on dialysis. Renal-risk variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1), associated with nondiabetic nephropathy and less subclinical atherosclerosis, may contribute to dialysis outcomes. Here, APOL1 renal-risk variants were assessed for association with dialytic survival in 450 diabetic and 275 nondiabetic African American hemodialysis patients from Wake Forest and Emory School of Medicine outpatient facilities. Outcomes were provided by the ESRD Network 6–Southeastern Kidney Council Standardized Information Management System. Dates of death, receipt of a kidney transplant, and loss to follow-up were recorded. Outcomes were censored at the date of transplantation or through 1 July 2015. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were computed separately in patients with nondiabetic and diabetic ESRD, adjusting for the covariates age, gender, comorbidities, ancestry, and presence of an arteriovenous fistula or graft at dialysis initiation. In nondiabetic ESRD, patients with 2 (vs. 0/1) APOL1 renal-risk variants had significantly longer dialysis survival (hazard ratio 0.57), a pattern not observed in patients with diabetes-associated ESRD (hazard ratio 1.29). Thus, 2 APOL1 renal-risk variants are associated with longer dialysis survival in African Americans without diabetes, potentially relating to presence of renal-limited disease or less atherosclerosis.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a class of drugs that utilizes immunotherapy to target various cancers. Included are the anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 receptor antibodies. By reprogramming the immune system, these agents provide a therapy that destroys cancer cells. However, this approach runs the risk of allowing pathologic autoimmunity and organ injury to develop. Unsurprisingly, immune-related adverse effects are described including pneumonitis, colitis, and various endocrinopathies. Now added to this list is AKI, primarily due to ATIN.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), monoclonal antibodies that target inhibitory receptors expressed on T cells, represent an emerging class of immunotherapy used in treating solid organ and hematologic malignancies. We describe the clinical and histologic features of 13 patients with CPI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) who underwent kidney biopsy. Median time from initiation of a CPI to AKI was 91 (range, 21 to 245) days. Pyuria was present in 8 patients, and the median urine protein to creatinine ratio was 0.48 (range, 0.12 to 0.98) g/g. An extrarenal immune-related adverse event occurred prior to the onset of AKI in 7 patients. Median peak serum creatinine was 4.5 (interquartile range, 3.6–7.3) mg/dl with 4 patients requiring hemodialysis. The prevalent pathologic lesion was acute tubulointerstitial nephritis in 12 patients, with 3 having granulomatous features, and 1 thrombotic microangiopathy. Among the 12 patients with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, 10 received treatment with glucocorticoids, resulting in complete or partial improvement in renal function in 2 and 7 patients, respectively. However, the 2 patients with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis not given glucocorticoids had no improvement in renal function. Thus, CPI-induced AKI is a new entity that presents with clinical and histologic features similar to other causes of drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, though with a longer latency period. Glucocorticoids appear to be a potentially effective treatment strategy. Hence, AKI due to CPIs may be caused by a unique mechanism of action linked to reprogramming of the immune system, leading to loss of tolerance.

Monday, 05 September 2016 22:05

Regenerative medicine in kidney disease

The treatment of renal failure has changed little in decades. Organ transplantation and dialysis continue to represent the only therapeutic options available. However, decades of fundamental research into the response of the kidney to acute injury and the processes driving progression to chronic kidney disease are beginning to open doors to new options. Similarly, continued investigations into the cellular and molecular basis of normal kidney development, together with major advances in stem cell biology, are now delivering options in regenerative medicine not possible as recently as a decade ago. In this review, we will discuss advances in regenerative medicine as it may be applied to the kidney. This will cover cellular therapies focused on ameliorating injury and improving repair as well as advancements in the generation of new renal tissue from stem/progenitor cells.

Residual kidney function (RKF) may confer a variety of benefits to patients on maintenance dialysis. RKF provides continuous clearance of middle molecules and protein-bound solutes. Whereas the definition of RKF varies across studies, interdialytic urine volume may emerge as a pragmatic alternative to more cumbersome calculations. RKF preservation is associated with better patient outcomes including survival and quality of life and is a clinical parameter and research focus in peritoneal dialysis. We propose the following practical considerations to preserve RKF, especially in newly transitioned (incident) hemodialysis patients: (1) periodic monitoring of RKF in hemodialysis patients through urine volume and including residual urea clearance with dialysis adequacy and outcome markers such as anemia, fluid gains, minerals and electrolytes, nutritional, status and quality of life; (2) avoidance of nephrotoxic agents such as radiocontrast dye, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and aminoglycosides; (3) more rigorous hypertension control and minimizing intradialytic hypotensive episodes; (4) individualizing the initial dialysis prescription with consideration of an incremental/infrequent approach to hemodialysis initiation (e.g., twice weekly) or peritoneal dialysis; and (5) considering a lower protein diet, especially on nondialysis days. Because RKF appears to be associated with better patient outcomes, it requires more clinical and research focus in the care of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

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