Expression of glomerular receptor for angiotensin II

Lili Zhou
Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, China

As the vasoactivehormone effector of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), angiotensin II (AngII) was first found to induce vasoconstriction of the glomerular capillaries in 1972, suggesting the potential existence of its receptors in glomerular mesangiumHowever, the specific AngII receptors in isolated glomeruliwerenot well characterized until 1974 (2).The AngII receptorsturned out to localize on themesangial cells and induce a contractile response (3)There are two subtypes of AngII receptors, AT1 and AT2. In 1992,using antagonist-inhibited 125I-AngII binding, D. Chansel et al. found that AT1 primarily mediates the vasoconstrictive properties of AngII on mesangial cells throughincreases in intracellular calcium concentration (4).In 1993the localization of AT1 in mesangium was directly visualized by in situ hybridization (5). Subsequently, the more widespread distribution of Ang II receptors,possibly including in podocytes, was hypothesizedby W. Kriz et al.(6)based on data from Yamada et al. (7). The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptorsin podocytes was subsequentlyverified by Sharma et al. in 1998 (8). AT1 was found to be more abundant (~75%) than AT2 inpodocytes (9)and responsible for structural podocyte damage and cell stress induced by AngII (10). The discovery of AT1 and its function inmesangial cells and podocytes over the last 30 years has led to rationale as to the importance of AngII on glomerular microcirculation and ultrafiltration originally described in 1976 (11). Since then, additionalfunctions of AT1 and AT2 have been elucidated, and the elegant contribution to the coordination and regulation of glomerular functions described


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